In 2018, more than half of porn actresses surveyed said they’d been sexually assaulted by an adult film performer, according to a new study from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

That same year, a similar survey from the U.K. found nearly one in five female porn performers had been sexually abused, a finding that also included women who worked as actors and models.

And research from France in 2016 found that a quarter of women surveyed had experienced physical violence at the hands of their partners.

And while many women who have been sexually harassed or assaulted in the workplace say they have stopped working, research suggests that those who haven’t are more susceptible to mental health problems like depression and anxiety.

“The way women are treated is more important than the way they work,” says Lillian Wills, director of the Center for Sexuality Studies at UCLA.

“We need to recognize that the industry has been treating them differently than women in other professions, which can have significant health and social consequences.”

Wills and her colleagues surveyed more than 1,300 female porn actresses, looking at how they experienced workplace harassment and sexual assault.

They found that, in terms of frequency and severity, women who were assaulted were more likely than other women to report that the harassment or assault had a negative impact on their health, and they were also more likely at the time to report experiencing PTSD, depression and/or anxiety.

More than half (54 percent) of the porn actresses interviewed said they had experienced sexual harassment or sexual assault, while nearly one-third (32 percent) said they were assaulted by a male adult film producer or performer.

Wills notes that this finding may have some relevance to the sexual harassment culture in the porn industry.

“It’s interesting that the women in porn are not the only ones that experience harassment,” she says.

“Some of the women who are harassed are the ones who are also in the workforce.”

But for many of those women who’ve experienced abuse, the impact is still far from over.

“There is still so much stigma surrounding sexual assault,” says Wills.

“When you see a female adult film star getting harassed, you see that she’s a human being.”

Wils points out that many porn actresses experience workplace harassment even after they’ve been cleared for work by the company.

“They can say they didn’t do anything wrong,” she adds.

“But the stigma is still there.”

Willing’s team’s study, published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior, also looked at how porn actresses were treated on social media.

Women who were in the industry reported having their stories circulated widely on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, and the researchers also interviewed women who said they felt unsafe in their workplace after they had reported harassment.

Wils says that this stigma can also affect how porn performers respond to the issues surrounding sexual harassment.

“You know, it doesn’t seem to matter if it’s real or not,” Wills says.

“[Women who have experienced harassment] have a different relationship with that than other people do.”

She notes that while some people have taken to Twitter to voice their concerns, others are more hesitant to do so.

Walls notes that the more women who speak out, the more likely they are to be listened to.

“I think it’s very important that we have a conversation about this,” Wils adds.

Will says that, while the research shows that the impact of porn is more widespread than other types of workplace harassment, there is a clear need to address the ways that the entertainment industry is failing women who report abuse.

“For a lot of people, porn is an escape from reality,” she explains.

“What we need to be asking is, ‘Is this the right escape for me?'”

Wills adds that she hopes that other researchers will take note of this trend and take a closer look at the issue of sexual harassment in the entertainment business.

“Our society is really struggling with the sexual assault epidemic right now, and we need researchers who are not afraid to ask questions about this topic,” she concludes.

“That means asking: What does it mean to be a woman in a business like this?

And that’s what we need.”

For more information on sexual harassment and assault, see: *More on porn, workplace violence, and sexual harassment:* *More from Newsweek:* The world’s most powerful porn star is still recovering* *Newsweek: The world will never stop watching you watch porn* *Cinema Review: How to watch porn on the cheap, without paying for it* *Sex and Gender in America: A Woman’s Guide to Porn* *CNN: The future of sex and gender in the US: ‘There are no rules anymore’* *Pornstars: How porn can make you more happy and